As per the National Wood Flooring Association:
“Wood flooring will perform best when the environment is controlled to stay within a relative humidity range of 30-50 percent and a temperature range 60-80 degrees Fahrenheit.”
NWFA & NOFMA Member Grading
A mostly heartwood flooring product that allows all the natural heartwood color variations with minimal character marks and limited color variation. This combination features the infinitely variable grain patterns with the minimal distraction from character marks and color variation.
Contains all the variations in coloration produced by the contrasting differences of heartwood and sapwood. Also included are minimal character marks, such as small knots, worm holes, and mineral streaks, as well as slightly open characters. The combination creates a floor where the light sapwood and dark heartwood are combined with small characters and other small color interruptions.
A flooring product characterized by prominent color variation that also contains prominent characters (with size limits) such as knots, open checks, worm holes, along with machining and drying variations. No. 1 Common is a tasteful floor where prominent variation is expected.
Contains sound natural and manufacturing variations including knot holes, open worm holes, and other open characters along with prominent color variations. Manufacturing variations include drying characters and machining irregularities. No. 2 Common is most desirable for applications where numerous notable character marks and prominent color contrast is desired.
Janka Hardness Scale
The Janka hardness test measures the hardness of wood. It involves measuring the force required to embed an 11.28 mm (0.444 in) steel ball into wood to half its diameter. This method was chosen so that the result would leave an indention 100 mm² (0.16 sq in) in size. It is one of the best measures of the ability of a wood species to withstand denting and wear. It is also a good indicator of how hard a species is to saw or nail. The hardness of wood usually varies with the direction of the wood grain. If testing is done on the surface of a plank, perpendicular to the grain, the test is said to be of “side hardness.” Testing the cut surface of a stump would be called a test of “end hardness.”
The results are stated in various ways, which can lead to confusion, especially when the name of the actual units employed is often not attached. In the United States, the measurement is in pounds-force (lbf). In Sweden it is in kilograms-force (kgf), and in Australia, either in newtons (N) or kilonewtons (kN). Sometimes the results are treated as units, e.g., “660 Janka”. To convert the United States pound-force (lbf) units to newtons N multiply pound-force by 0.453 592 37 then multiply by 9.80665 (1 standard g in units of m/s2). Janka hardness N = (lbf x 0.453 592 37) x 9.80665 OR multiply by 4.44822161526. To get lbf from N, multiply N by 0.224808943099736.
A common use of Janka hardness ratings is to determine whether a species is suitable for use as flooring. The Janka Hardness test is done in accordance with ASTM D 1037-7 testing methods. Please note: no flooring is ever tested. The test is done on raw material stock that can range from 1″ to 2″ thick. Note these numbers are an average! A standard deviation exists for each species, but these numbers do not get published. The chart is not an absolute; it is meant to help you understand which woods are harder than others. There are other factors that can affect how flooring performs: type of core (for engineered flooring), grain direction and thickness floor or top wear surface.
Wood Finishes of Triveneta Parchetti
Untreated & Calibrated
Perfectly smooth surface obtained by uniform sanding with grain size 180.
Soft component of wood is brushed away highlighting the characteristic vein of the wood species. Brushed flooring is more durable, harder-wearing and more impact resistant.
For those who are true traditionalists and value hardwood flooring in it’s innate splendour. The use of solvent-free natural oils which preserve the open-pore state and promote the transpiration of the wood are the core of this finishing process. We use 100% natural vegetable oils in order to permit the pores of the wood to remain open, allowing for a greater stability should the ambient conditions undergo slight and/or drastic changes. In fact, oiled finishing treatments penetrate deep into the fibre of the wood, protecting and nourishing the flooring. A floor finished with natural oils grants an organic texture to the wood, however, requires a more diligent and constant maintenance. For our oiled products, we propose the application of a natural maintenance product known as Linfolegno, which creates a patina on the flooring and renders it more water and stain resistant. While oiled flooring may be more prone to scratches and scuffing, it is easily repairable.
The use of acrylic and/or water-based anti-scratch varnishes offer a closed-pore finish, but are essentially elastic in nature and are available in a range of opacities from mat to glossy and are at the discretion of the customer. The total quantity of varnish applied to the flooring amounts to approximately 220g/m2, which guarantees an excellent and durable finish. The maintenance for varnished floors is simple and can be renovated with ease.
A finishing that donates a unique texture and sheen to the flooring with the application of natural bee’s wax.
Combined with a brushed effect, the vein of the wood is brought into evidence with a coloured oil/varnish. The product is then re-calibrated and finished in the desired manner.
A machine finish which creates an irregular, wave-like appearance.
A finish involving a real craftsmanship, where a specific tool is used to carve out parts of the plank.
Used to give the wood an aged look and feel by adding small pinholes resembling those created by woodworms.
In this finish, the edges of the plank are serrated with a band saw.
In this finishing process a belt-sander is used to create small smooth hollows in the length of the plank.
Top 10 Tips
With a greater variety of products come changes in application, tools and drying times, so first take a moment to read the instructions–and always play it safe: Wear protective gloves and safety glasses, and provide plenty of fresh air when working with oil-based products.
Particleboard absorbs too much stain, veneers sometimes not enough; “paint grade” woods are lower quality than “stain grade” woods and while a stain can change the color of a board, it can’t change the grain pattern. In short, ask questions and learn what to expect from any wood you buy.
Sanding isn’t always fun, but scratches and nicks absorb more stain and finish than does smooth wood, hence they stand out more, not less, when stained.
Wood pores are irregular and only Minwax® Pre-Stain Wood Conditioner can reduce the likelihood of blotchiness when these irregular pores absorb the stain you apply.
Wood is unpredictable, so test your stain color on an inconspicuous spot before you start staining the most visible parts of your project.
Some ingredients in both stains and finishes settle over time, but shaking will only add unwanted bubbles– and may not mix the ingredients thoroughly. Always stir until all settlement is evenly dispersed.
Foam brushes are fine for applying Minwax® Pre-Stain Wood Conditioner and any Minwax®stains, but they don’t lay down a smooth final topcoat finish like quality bristle brushes do.
For best results, face the strongest light in your work area so that you’ll immediately spot any runs, drips or missed areas while you are staining and finishing. And be sure to work in a well-ventilated room.
Before recoating an existing finish, make sure the old finish has been cleaned of any oils and wax, is completely dry, and has been scuffed lightly with fine 220-grit sandpaper so that the new finish has something to grip.
Dust is the enemy of a smooth finish. To eliminate dust, vacuum it off your project and workbench rather than brushing or blowing it into the air. Also, be sure to use a damp cloth as a final cleanup on the wood before staining or topcoating.